Group A Details

12th Standard CBSE

Rs.4500
Rs.3500

12th Standard CBSE

Rs.4500
Rs.3500

Group A

Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology

Group A package offers your children to get maximum marks in their final exams also helps to achieve the success in their competitive Exams Like NEET, IIT JEE, JIPMER, AIIMS, etc. It covers the complete academic subjects of the 12th standard State board syllabus. Question patterns and solutions are based on current academic[2018 - 2019] syllabus. It also provides the Online Test platform for academic subjects like Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology.

Rs.4500
Rs.3500
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12th Standard CBSE

Group A English Medium

  • 4 Subject Packs
  • 3 Online Test Packs
  • 115100 Questions
  • 2500 Free Online tests

12th Standard CBSE

Subject Details Group - Group A

Detailed Information about 12th Standard CBSE Group A Pack

Section A Physics and Measurement Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of m

Section A

Physics and Measurement
Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications

Kinematics
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane. Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

Laws of Motion
Force and Inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications

Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions

Rotational Motion
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion

Gravitation
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth, Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites

Properties of Solids and Liquids
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling

Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency

Kinetic Theory of Gases
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases -assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number.

Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.

Electrostatics
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

Current Electricity
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer

Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves.

Optics
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davis son-Germer experiment.

Atoms and Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; 1-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch

Communication Systems
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

Section B
Experimental Skills
Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:

  • Vernier callipers-its use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel.
  • Screw gauge-its use to determine thickness/ diameter of thin sheet/wire.
  • Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.
  • Metre Scale - mass of a given object by principle of moments.
  • Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire.
  • Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.
  • Co-efficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
  • Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time.
  • Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.
  • Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquid by method of mixtures.
  • Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge.
  • Resistance of a given wire using Ohm's law.
  • Potentiometer-
  • Comparison of emf of two primary cells.
  • Determination of internal resistance of a cell.
  • Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method,
  • Focal length of:
  • Convex mirror
  • Concave mirror, and
  • Convex lens
  • using parallax method.
  • Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.
  • Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
  • Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
  • Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage.
  • Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.
  • Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
  • Using multimeter to:
  • Identify base of a transistor
  • Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistor
  • See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
  • Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC).

Section A – Physical Chemistry Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, e

Section A – Physical Chemistry

Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry
Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination: Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

States of Matter
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fee, bec and hep lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical and magnetic properties.

Atomic Structure
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of t|/ and \|/2 with r for Is and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals - aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

Chemical Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics-Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics-Spontaneity of processes; AS of the universe and AG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, AG" (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

Solutions
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its significance.

Equilibrium
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry's law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of AG and AG" in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions -Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

Surface Chemistry
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids -lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.

Section B – Inorganic Chemistry

Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals -concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.

Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.

s - Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group -1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

p- Block Elements
Group -13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p - block elements Group -13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group -14
Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group -15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PC13, PCI,); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group -16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group -17
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group-18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

d - and f - Block Elements
Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements -physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr, 07 and Kmn04.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states

Co-Ordination Compounds
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co­ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.

Section C – Organic Chemistry
Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds
Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules -hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.

Hydrocarbons
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene -structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel - Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT

Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers
Alcohols:
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reitner - Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=0 group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives), Griguard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Hatoform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids
Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Polymers
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polyethene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

Biomolecules
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).
Proteins - Elementary Idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.
Biological functions of nucleic acids.

Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines - their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples.
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Principles Related to Practical Chemistry
Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) inorganic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr's salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises -Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO,, Mohr's salt vs KMnO
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+, Cu!+, Af+, Fe1+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+,Mg2+, nh
Anions- CO,", S2~, SO4", NO", NO~2, Cf, Br", I" . (Insoluble salts excluded)
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

JEE Mathematics Syllabus

JEE Main Engineering Entrance Exam

Sets, Relations and Functions Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relation

Sets, Relations and Functions
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;, one-one, into and onto functions, composition of functions

Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots

Matrices and Determinants
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices

Permutations And Combinations
Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications

Mathematical Induction
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications

Binomial Theorem and its Simple Applications
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications

Sequences and Series
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3. Arithmetico-Geometric progression

Limit, Continuity and Differentiability
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals

Integral Calculus
ntegral as an anti - derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.

Differential Equations
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations.

Co-ordinate Geometry
artesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

Three Dimensional Geometry
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines

Vector Algebra
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three-dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product

Statistics and Probability
Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

Trigonometry
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances

Mathematical Reasoning
Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive

NEET Physics Syllabus

Contents Class XI Syllabus Unit I: Physical World and Measurement Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and soc

Contents Class XI Syllabus

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement
Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics
Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components.
Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
Heat transfer-conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

Contents of Class XII Syllabus
Unit I: Electrostatics

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples.
Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic Waves
Need for displacement current.
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

NEET Chemistry Syllabus

Contents of Class XI Syllabus Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry. Law

Contents of Class XI Syllabus

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

  • General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
  • Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
  • Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

  • Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

  • Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

  • Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

  • Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
  • Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit VI : Thermodynamics

  • First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
  • Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
  • Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

Unit VII: Equilibrium

  • Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Unit VIII: Redox Reactions

  • Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

Unit IX: Hydrogen

  • Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;

Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

  • Group I and group 2 elements:
  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
  • Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
  • Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
  • Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements

  • General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
  • Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
  • General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
  • Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

  • General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
  • Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
  • Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
  • Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
  • Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Contents of Class XII Syllabus
Unit I: Solid State

  • Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

Unit II: Solutions

  • Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

  • Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

  • Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: p- Block Elements

  • Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3 , PCI5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
  • Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
  • Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
  • Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
  • Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
  • Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

  • Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
  • Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
  • Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,  iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
  • Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
  • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

  • Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
  • Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

  • Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
  • Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
  • Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
  • Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
  • Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
  • Vitamins- Classification and function.
  • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Unit XV: Polymers

  • Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

  • Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
  • Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
  • Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

NEET Biology Syllabus

Contents of Class XI Syllabus Unit I: Diversity in Living World Details What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & S

Contents of Class XI Syllabus
Unit I: Diversity in Living World Details

What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

Unit II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Details
Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

Unit III: Cell Structure and Function Details
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Unit IV: Plant Physiology Details
Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

Unit IV: Human Physiology Details
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in human scentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).

Contents of Class XII Syllabus
Unit I: Reproduction Details

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit II: Genetics and Evolution Details
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare Details
Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

Unit IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Details
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

Unit V: Ecology and environment Details
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Medical Entrance Exam Phase II - Physics Syllabus

Medical Entrance Exam - Phase II

Electric Charges and Fields Introduction-Electric Charge-Conductors and Insulators-Charging by Induction-Basic Properties of Electric Charge-Coulomb’s Law-Forces betwee

Electric Charges and Fields
Introduction-Electric Charge-Conductors and Insulators-Charging by Induction-Basic Properties of Electric Charge-Coulomb’s Law-Forces between Multiple Charges-Electric Field-Electric Field Lines-Electric Flux-Electric Dipole-Dipole in a Uniform External Field-Continuous Charge Distribution-Gauss’s Law-Applications of Gauss’s Law

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Introduction-Electrostatic Potential-Potential due to a Point Charge-Potential due to an Electric Dipole-Potential due to a System of Charges-Equipotential Surfaces-Potential Energy of a System of Charges-Potential Energy in an External Field-Electrostatics of Conductors-Dielectrics and Polarisation-Capacitors and Capacitance-The Parallel Plate Capacitor-Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance-Combination of Capacitors-Energy Stored in a Capacitor-Van de Graaff Generator

Current Electricity
Introduction-Electric Current-Electric Currents in Conductors-Ohm’s law-Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity-Limitations of Ohm’s Law-Resistivity of Various Materials-Temperature Dependence of Resistivity-Electrical Energy, Power-Combination of Resistors: Series and Parallel-Cells, emf, Internal Resistance-Cells in Series and in Parallel-Kirchhoff’s Rules-Wheatstone Bridge-Meter Bridge-Potentiometer

Moving Charges and Magnetism
Introduction-Magnetic Force-Motion in a Magnetic Field-Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields-Magnetic Field due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law-Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop-Ampere’s Circuital Law-The Solenoid and the Toroid-Force between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere-Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole-The Moving Coil Galvanometer

Magnetism and Matter
Introduction-The Bar Magnet-Magnetism and Gauss’s Law-The Earth’s Magnetism-Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity-Magnetic Properties of Materials-Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

Electromagnetic Induction
Introduction-The Experiments of Faraday and Henry-Magnetic Flux-Faraday’s Law of Induction-Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy-Motional Electromotive Force-Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study-Eddy Currents-Inductance-AC Generator

Alternating Current
Introduction-AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor-Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors: Phasors-AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor-AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor-AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit-Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor-LC Oscillations-Transformers

Electromagnetic Waves
Introduction-Displacement Current-Electromagnetic Waves-Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Introduction-Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors-Refraction-Total Internal Reflection-Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses-Refraction through a Prism-Dispersion by a Prism-Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight-Optical Instruments

Wave Optics
Introduction-Huygens Principle-Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle-Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves-Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment-Diffraction-Polarisation

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Introduction-Electron Emission-Photoelectric Effect-Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect-Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light-Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation-Particle Nature of Light: The Photon-Wave Nature of Matter-Davisson and Germer Experiment

Atoms
Introduction-Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom-Atomic Spectra-Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom-The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom-DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation

Nuclei
Introduction-Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus-Size of the Nucleus-Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy-Nuclear Force-Radioactivity-Nuclear Energy

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Introduction-Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors-Intrinsic Semiconductor-Extrinsic Semiconductor-p-n Junction-Semiconductor Diode-Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier-Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes-Junction Transistor-Digital Electronics and Logic Gates-Integrated Circuits

Communication Systems
Introduction-Elements of a Communication System-Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems-Bandwidth of Signals-Bandwidth of Transmission Medium-Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves-Modulation and its Necessity-Amplitude Modulation-Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave-Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Medical Entrance Exam Phase II - Chemistry Syllabus

Medical Entrance Exam - Phase II

The Solid State General Characteristics of Solid State-Amorphous and Crystalline Solids-Classification of Crystalline Solids-Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells-Number of Atoms i

The Solid State
General Characteristics of Solid State-Amorphous and Crystalline Solids-Classification of Crystalline Solids-Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells-Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell-Close Packed Structures-Packing Efficiency-Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions-Imperfections in Solids-Electrical Properties-Magnetic Properties-

Solutions
Types of Solutions-Expressing Concentration of Solutions-Solubility-Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions-Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions-Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass-Abnormal Molar Masses-

Electrochemistry
Electrochemical Cells-Galvanic Cells-Nernst Equation-Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions-Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis-Batteries-Fuel Cells-Corrosion

Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a Chemical Reaction-Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction-Integrated Rate Equations-Pseudo First Order Reaction-Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction-Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Surface Chemistry
Adsorption-Catalysis-Colloids-Classification of Colloids-Emulsions-Colloids Around Us

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Occurrence of Metals-Concentration of Ores-Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore-Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy-Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy-Oxidation Reduction-Refining-Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

The p-Block Elements
Group 15 Elements-Dinitrogen-Ammonia-Oxides of Nitrogen-Nitric Acid-Phosphorus – Allotropic Forms-Phosphine-Phosphorus Halides-Oxoacids of Phosphorus-Group 16 Elements-Dioxygen-Simple Oxides-Ozone-Sulphur  Allotropic Forms-Sulphur Dioxide-Oxoacids of Sulphur-Sulphuric Acid-Group 17 Elements-Chlorine-Hydrogen Chloride-Oxoacids of Halogens-Interhalogen Compounds-Group 18 Elements

The d-and f-Block Elements
Position in the Periodic Table-Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements-General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)-Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements-The Lanthanoids-The Actinoids-Some Applications of d-and f-Block Elements

Coordination Compounds
Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds-Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds-Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds-Isomerism in Coordination Compounds-Bonding in Coordination Compounds-Bonding in Metal Carbonyls-Stability of Coordination Compounds-Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Classification-Nomenclature-Nature of C–X Bond-Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes-Preparation of Haloarenes-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Classification-Nomenclature-Structures of Functional Groups-Alcohols and Phenols-Some Commercially Important Alcohols-Ethers

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group-Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones-Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group-Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Amines
Structure of Amines-Classification-Nomenclature-Preparation of Amines-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Biomolecules
Carbohydrates-Proteins-Enzymes-Vitamins-Nucleic Acids-Hormones

Polymers
Classification of Polymers-Types of Polymerisation Reactions-Molecular Mass of Polymers-Biodegradable Polymers-Polymers of Commercial Importance

Chemistry in Everyday Life
Drugs and their Classification-Drug-Target Interaction-Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs-Chemicals in Food-Cleansing Agents

Medical Entrance Exam Phase II - Biology Syllabus

Medical Entrance Exam - Phase II

Unit: Reproduction Reproduction in Organisms Asexual Reproduction-Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower &nda

Unit: Reproduction
Reproduction in Organisms

Asexual Reproduction-Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms-Pre-fertilisation: Structures and Events-Double Fertilisation-Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events-Apomixis and Polyembryony

Human Reproduction
The Male Reproductive System-The Female Reproductive System-Gametogenesis-Menstrual Cycle-Fertilisation and Implantation-Pregnancy and Embryonic Development-Parturition and Lactation

Reproductive Health
Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies-Population Explosion and Birth Control-Medical Termination of Pregnancy-Sexually Transmitted Diseases-Infertility

Unit: Genetics and Evolution
Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance-Inheritance of One Gene-Inheritance of Two Genes-Sex Determination-Mutation-Genetic Disorders

Molecular Basis of Inheritance
The DNA-The Search for Genetic Material-RNA World-Replication-Transcription-Genetic Code-Translation-Regulation of Gene Expression-Human Genome Project DNA Fingerprinting

Evolution
Origin of Life-Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory-What are the Evidence for Evolution?-What is Adaptive Radiation?-Biological Evolution-Mechanism of Evolution-Hardy – Weinberg Principle-A Brief Account of Evolution-Origin and Evolution of Man

Unit: Biology in Human Welfare
Human Health and Disease

Common Diseases in Humans-Immunity-AIDS-Cancer-Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Animal Husbandry-Plant Breeding-Single Cell Proteins-Tissue Culture

Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in Household Products-Microbes in Industrial Products-Microbes in Sewage Treatment-Microbes in Production of Biogas-Microbes as Biocontrol Agents-Microbes as Biofertilisers

Unit: Biotechnology
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Principles of Biotechnology-Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology-Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Biotechnology and its Applications
Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture-Biotechnological Applications in Medicine-Transgenic Animals-Ethical Issues

Unit: Ecology
Organisms and Populations

Organism and its Environment-Populations

Ecosystem
Ecosystem–Structure and Function-Productivity-Decomposition-Energy Flow-Ecological Pyramids-Ecological Succession-Nutrient Cycling-Ecosystem Services

Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity-Biodiversity Conservation

Environmental Issues
Air Pollution and Its Control-Water Pollution and Its Control-Solid Wastes-Agro-chemicals and their Effects-Radioactive Wastes-Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming-Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere-Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance-Deforestation

Biology Syllabus

Biology Syllabus

Unit: Reproduction Reproduction in Organisms Asexual Reproduction-Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower &nda

Unit: Reproduction
Reproduction in Organisms

Asexual Reproduction-Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms-Pre-fertilisation: Structures and Events-Double Fertilisation-Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events-Apomixis and Polyembryony

Human Reproduction
The Male Reproductive System-The Female Reproductive System-Gametogenesis-Menstrual Cycle-Fertilisation and Implantation-Pregnancy and Embryonic Development-Parturition and Lactation

Reproductive Health
Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies-Population Explosion and Birth Control-Medical Termination of Pregnancy-Sexually Transmitted Diseases-Infertility

Unit: Genetics and Evolution
Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance-Inheritance of One Gene-Inheritance of Two Genes-Sex Determination-Mutation-Genetic Disorders

Molecular Basis of Inheritance
The DNA-The Search for Genetic Material-RNA World-Replication-Transcription-Genetic Code-Translation-Regulation of Gene Expression-Human Genome Project DNA Fingerprinting

Evolution
Origin of Life-Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory-What are the Evidence for Evolution?-What is Adaptive Radiation?-Biological Evolution-Mechanism of Evolution-Hardy – Weinberg Principle-A Brief Account of Evolution-Origin and Evolution of Man

Unit: Biology in Human Welfare
Human Health and Disease

Common Diseases in Humans-Immunity-AIDS-Cancer-Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Animal Husbandry-Plant Breeding-Single Cell Proteins-Tissue Culture

Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in Household Products-Microbes in Industrial Products-Microbes in Sewage Treatment-Microbes in Production of Biogas-Microbes as Biocontrol Agents-Microbes as Biofertilisers

Unit: Biotechnology
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Principles of Biotechnology-Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology-Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Biotechnology and its Applications
Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture-Biotechnological Applications in Medicine-Transgenic Animals-Ethical Issues

Unit: Ecology
Organisms and Populations

Organism and its Environment-Populations

Ecosystem
Ecosystem–Structure and Function-Productivity-Decomposition-Energy Flow-Ecological Pyramids-Ecological Succession-Nutrient Cycling-Ecosystem Services

Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity-Biodiversity Conservation

Environmental Issues
Air Pollution and Its Control-Water Pollution and Its Control-Solid Wastes-Agro-chemicals and their Effects-Radioactive Wastes-Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming-Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere-Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance-Deforestation

Physics Syllabus

Physics Syllabus

Electric Charges and Fields Introduction-Electric Charge-Conductors and Insulators-Charging by Induction-Basic Properties of Electric Charge-Coulomb’s Law-Forces betwee

Electric Charges and Fields
Introduction-Electric Charge-Conductors and Insulators-Charging by Induction-Basic Properties of Electric Charge-Coulomb’s Law-Forces between Multiple Charges-Electric Field-Electric Field Lines-Electric Flux-Electric Dipole-Dipole in a Uniform External Field-Continuous Charge Distribution-Gauss’s Law-Applications of Gauss’s Law

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Introduction-Electrostatic Potential-Potential due to a Point Charge-Potential due to an Electric Dipole-Potential due to a System of Charges-Equipotential Surfaces-Potential Energy of a System of Charges-Potential Energy in an External Field-Electrostatics of Conductors-Dielectrics and Polarisation-Capacitors and Capacitance-The Parallel Plate Capacitor-Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance-Combination of Capacitors-Energy Stored in a Capacitor-Van de Graaff Generator

Current Electricity
Introduction-Electric Current-Electric Currents in Conductors-Ohm’s law-Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity-Limitations of Ohm’s Law-Resistivity of Various Materials-Temperature Dependence of Resistivity-Electrical Energy, Power-Combination of Resistors: Series and Parallel-Cells, emf, Internal Resistance-Cells in Series and in Parallel-Kirchhoff’s Rules-Wheatstone Bridge-Meter Bridge-Potentiometer

Moving Charges and Magnetism
Introduction-Magnetic Force-Motion in a Magnetic Field-Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields-Magnetic Field due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law-Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop-Ampere’s Circuital Law-The Solenoid and the Toroid-Force between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere-Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole-The Moving Coil Galvanometer

Magnetism and Matter
Introduction-The Bar Magnet-Magnetism and Gauss’s Law-The Earth’s Magnetism-Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity-Magnetic Properties of Materials-Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

Electromagnetic Induction
Introduction-The Experiments of Faraday and Henry-Magnetic Flux-Faraday’s Law of Induction-Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy-Motional Electromotive Force-Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study-Eddy Currents-Inductance-AC Generator

Alternating Current
Introduction-AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor-Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors: Phasors-AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor-AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor-AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit-Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor-LC Oscillations-Transformers

Electromagnetic Waves
Introduction-Displacement Current-Electromagnetic Waves-Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Introduction-Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors-Refraction-Total Internal Reflection-Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses-Refraction through a Prism-Dispersion by a Prism-Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight-Optical Instruments

Wave Optics
Introduction-Huygens Principle-Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle-Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves-Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment-Diffraction-Polarisation

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Introduction-Electron Emission-Photoelectric Effect-Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect-Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light-Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation-Particle Nature of Light: The Photon-Wave Nature of Matter-Davisson and Germer Experiment

Atoms
Introduction-Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom-Atomic Spectra-Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom-The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom-DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation

Nuclei
Introduction-Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus-Size of the Nucleus-Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy-Nuclear Force-Radioactivity-Nuclear Energy

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Introduction-Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors-Intrinsic Semiconductor-Extrinsic Semiconductor-p-n Junction-Semiconductor Diode-Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier-Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes-Junction Transistor-Digital Electronics and Logic Gates-Integrated Circuits

Communication Systems
Introduction-Elements of a Communication System-Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems-Bandwidth of Signals-Bandwidth of Transmission Medium-Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves-Modulation and its Necessity-Amplitude Modulation-Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave-Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Chemistry Syllabus

Chemistry Syllabus

The Solid State General Characteristics of Solid State-Amorphous and Crystalline Solids-Classification of Crystalline Solids-Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells-Number of Atoms i

The Solid State
General Characteristics of Solid State-Amorphous and Crystalline Solids-Classification of Crystalline Solids-Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells-Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell-Close Packed Structures-Packing Efficiency-Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions-Imperfections in Solids-Electrical Properties-Magnetic Properties-

Solutions
Types of Solutions-Expressing Concentration of Solutions-Solubility-Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions-Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions-Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass-Abnormal Molar Masses-

Electrochemistry
Electrochemical Cells-Galvanic Cells-Nernst Equation-Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions-Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis-Batteries-Fuel Cells-Corrosion

Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a Chemical Reaction-Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction-Integrated Rate Equations-Pseudo First Order Reaction-Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction-Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Surface Chemistry
Adsorption-Catalysis-Colloids-Classification of Colloids-Emulsions-Colloids Around Us

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Occurrence of Metals-Concentration of Ores-Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore-Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy-Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy-Oxidation Reduction-Refining-Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

The p-Block Elements
Group 15 Elements-Dinitrogen-Ammonia-Oxides of Nitrogen-Nitric Acid-Phosphorus – Allotropic Forms-Phosphine-Phosphorus Halides-Oxoacids of Phosphorus-Group 16 Elements-Dioxygen-Simple Oxides-Ozone-Sulphur  Allotropic Forms-Sulphur Dioxide-Oxoacids of Sulphur-Sulphuric Acid-Group 17 Elements-Chlorine-Hydrogen Chloride-Oxoacids of Halogens-Interhalogen Compounds-Group 18 Elements

The d-and f-Block Elements
Position in the Periodic Table-Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements-General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)-Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements-The Lanthanoids-The Actinoids-Some Applications of d-and f-Block Elements

Coordination Compounds
Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds-Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds-Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds-Isomerism in Coordination Compounds-Bonding in Coordination Compounds-Bonding in Metal Carbonyls-Stability of Coordination Compounds-Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Classification-Nomenclature-Nature of C–X Bond-Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes-Preparation of Haloarenes-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Classification-Nomenclature-Structures of Functional Groups-Alcohols and Phenols-Some Commercially Important Alcohols-Ethers

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group-Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones-Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group-Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Amines
Structure of Amines-Classification-Nomenclature-Preparation of Amines-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts-Physical Properties-Chemical Reactions-Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Biomolecules
Carbohydrates-Proteins-Enzymes-Vitamins-Nucleic Acids-Hormones

Polymers
Classification of Polymers-Types of Polymerisation Reactions-Molecular Mass of Polymers-Biodegradable Polymers-Polymers of Commercial Importance

Chemistry in Everyday Life
Drugs and their Classification-Drug-Target Interaction-Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs-Chemicals in Food-Cleansing Agents

Mathematics Syllabus

Mathematics Syllabus

Relations and Functions Introduction-Types of Relations-Types of Functions-Composition of Functions and Invertible Function-Binary Operations Inverse Trigonom

Relations and Functions
Introduction-Types of Relations-Types of Functions-Composition of Functions and Invertible Function-Binary Operations

Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Introduction-Basic Concepts-Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Matrices
Introduction-Matrix-Types of Matrices-Operations on Matrices-Transpose of a Matrix-Symmetric and Skew-Symmetric Matrices-Elementary Operation Transformation of a Matrix-Invertible Matrices

Determinants
Introduction-Determinant-Properties of Determinants-Area of a Triangle-Minors and Cofactors-Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix-Applications of Determinants and Matrices

Continuity and Differentiability
Introduction-Continuity-Differentiability-Exponential and Logarithmic Functions-Logarithmic Differentiation-Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms-Second Order Derivative-Mean Value Theorem

Application of Derivatives
Introduction-Rate of Change of Quantities-Increasing and Decreasing Functions-Tangents and Normals-Approximations-Maxima and Minima

Integrals
Introduction-Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation-Methods of Integration-Integrals of some Particular Functions-Integration by Partial Fractions-Integration by Parts-Definite Integral-Fundamental Theorem of Calculus-Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution-Some Properties of Definite Integrals

Application of Integrals
Introduction-Area under Simple Curves-Area between Two Curves

Differential Equations
Introduction-Basic Concepts-General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation-Formation of a Differential Equation whose General Solution is given-Methods of Solving First order, First Degree Differential Equations

Vector Algebra
Introduction-Some Basic Concepts-Types of Vectors-Addition of Vectors-Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar-Product of Two Vectors

Three Dimensional Geometry
Introduction-Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line-Equation of a Line in Space-Angle between Two Lines-Shortest Distance between Two Lines-Plane-Coplanarity of Two Lines-Angle between Two Planes-Distance of a Point from a Plane-Angle between a Line and a Plane

Linear Programming
Introduction-Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation-Different Types of Linear Programming Problems

Probability
Introduction-Conditional Probability-Multiplication Theorem on Probability-Independent Events-Baye’s Theorem-Random Variables and its Probability Distributions-Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution

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